---
title: "Identify Interesting Observations"
output: rmarkdown::html_vignette
vignette: >
%\VignetteIndexEntry{Identify Interesting Observations}
%\VignetteEngine{knitr::rmarkdown}
%\VignetteEncoding{UTF-8}
---
```{r setup, include = FALSE}
options(rmarkdown.html_vignette.check_title = FALSE)
knitr::opts_chunk$set(
collapse = TRUE,
comment = "#>",
warning = FALSE,
message = FALSE
)
library(brolgar)
library(ggplot2)
library(dplyr)
library(tidyr)
```
This vignette unpacks how to find interesting individuals.
Let's say we calculate a slope for each individual `key`, using `keys_slope()`:
```{r wages-slope}
wages_slope <- key_slope(wages, ln_wages ~ xp)
wages_slope
```
This is neat! But now we want to know those `keys` that are **nearest** to some set of summary statistics of the slope. By **nearest** here we mean which values have the smallest numerical difference.
Let's say the _five number summary_:
```{r summary-slope}
summary(wages_slope$.slope_xp)
```
If want to find those individuals that have slopes **near** these values.
We can do this using `keys_near()`, which returns those nearest to some summary
statistics. In this case, it is the five number summary. In the next section we describe how you can provide your own named list of functions to use.
```{r use-summarise-fivenum}
wages_slope_near <- wages_slope %>%
keys_near(key = id,
var = .slope_xp)
wages_slope_near
```
We can then join this information back against the data and plot those
interesting individuals:
```{r plot-keys-near}
wages_slope_near %>%
left_join(wages, by = "id") %>%
ggplot(aes(x = xp,
y = ln_wages,
group = id,
colour = stat)) +
geom_line()
```
You could also, with a bit of work, show these lines against the background using gghighlight
```{r gghighlight-near}
library(gghighlight)
wages %>%
left_join(wages_slope_near, by = "id") %>%
as_tibble() %>%
ggplot(aes(x = xp,
y = ln_wages,
group = id,
colour = stat)) +
geom_line() +
gghighlight(!is.na(stat))
```
# Specify your own summaries for `keys_near`
You can specify your own list of summaries to pass to `keys_near`. For example, you could create your own summaries to give a sense of range. Note that the functions here start with `b_`, and are `b_summaries` provided by `brolgar` that have sensible defaults. You can [read about them here](https://brolgar.njtierney.com/reference/b_summaries.html), or with `?b_summaries`
```{r create-your-own}
l_ranges <- list(min = b_min,
range_diff = b_range_diff,
max = b_max,
iqr = b_iqr)
wages %>%
key_slope(formula = ln_wages ~ xp) %>%
keys_near(key = id,
var = .slope_xp,
funs = l_ranges)
```
# Implementation of `keys_near`
If you are interested in the specifics of how `keys_near()` works, this section describes how it is implemented in `brolgar`.
To get the data into the right format, there are a few steps.
First, we need to get the data into a format where we have all the statistics that we are interested in, along with the id, and the statistic of interest.
We can fit a linear model for each `key` in the dataset using `key_slope()`.
```{r key-slope}
wages_slope <- key_slope(wages, ln_wages ~ xp)
wages_slope
```
We can then perform a summary of the statistic of interest, in this case the slope.
```{r mutate-all-wages}
wages_slope_all_stats <- wages_slope %>%
mutate_at(.vars = vars(.slope_xp),
.funs = list(.slope_min = b_min,
.slope_max = b_max,
.slope_median = b_median,
.slope_q1 = b_q25,
.slope_q3 = b_q75)) %>%
select(id,
starts_with(".slope"))
wages_slope_all_stats
```
We then need to convert this into long format
```{r gather-wages}
wages_slope_all_stats_long <-
wages_slope_all_stats %>%
gather(key = "stat",
value = "stat_value",
-id,
-.slope_xp)
wages_slope_all_stats_long
```
We can then calculate the difference between each stat and the slope, `.slope_xp`:
```{r stats-diff}
stats_diff <-
wages_slope_all_stats_long %>%
mutate(stat_diff = abs(.slope_xp - stat_value))
stats_diff
```
With stats diff, we can then group by the `stat`, and find return those rows with the smallest difference between the statistic and the value:
```{r choose-top-diff}
top_stats_diff <-
stats_diff %>%
group_by(stat) %>%
top_n(-1,
wt = stat_diff)
top_stats_diff
```
```{r join-top-stats-diff}
top_stats_diff %>%
left_join(wages, by = "id") %>%
ggplot(aes(x = xp,
y = ln_wages,
group = id,
colour = stat)) +
geom_line()
```
We can see that we get the same output using `keys_near()`:
```{r show-same}
wages %>%
key_slope(ln_wages ~ xp) %>%
keys_near(key = id,
var = .slope_xp) %>%
left_join(wages, by = "id") %>%
ggplot(aes(x = xp,
y = ln_wages,
group = id,
colour = stat)) +
geom_line()
```